Proof of unique blockchain storage revised

In this post I describe a new way to for a node in the Bitcoin blockchain to prove its peers he stores a copy of the blockchain. The core primitive that enables this protocol this is the Asymmetric-Time Function (ATF). You won’t get much info by googling ATF since I coined that term myself some […]


DagCoin: a cryptocurrency without blocks

Back in 2012 I thought a lot on a new cryptocurrency that could merge the concepts of transaction and block. Each transaction would carry a proof-of-work and reference one or more previous transactions. The resulting authenticated data structure would be a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) of transactions where each transaction “confirms” one or more previous […]

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How DECOR++ can eradicate selfish mining incentive by design

A year ago I proposed the DECOR protocol, a new rule for cryptocurrencies to reduce significantly the amount of orphan blocks and then allow block rate to be as high as one every 5 seconds, and at the same time it promised to address the problem of selfish mining. After one year, I’ve received very […]

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Simulated Brains, Smart-contracts and the direction of time

There are three fantastic discoveries in computer science that fascinate me: fully-homomorphic encryption , Indistinguishability Obfuscation, and  sz-Snarks. Using these constructions, it’s possible to create an obfuscated program and allow others to execute the program in a way that the when the program produces an output, people cannot learn anything about its inner workings. The […]


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Faster SHA-256 ASICs using carry reduced adders

The core part of Bitcoin mining is performing a double SHA-256 hash digest and comparing the result against the target. Two years ago, in 2013, the first Bitcoin ASIC miners appeared on the market. Since then, mining ASIC technology advanced both in terms of the manufacturing technology (the node) and in terms of design, to […]

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Proof of unique blockchain storage

One of the key elements to measure the health of a blockchain based cryptocurrency is the number of nodes actually storing the blockchain. The blockchain grows normally according to the number of payments per second. But as a cryptocurrency becomes popular, the number of payments per second increases, and the blockchain growth rate also increases. […]


The Bitcoin Freeze on Transaction Attack (FRONT)

Two month passed since my last post and the reason is I’ve been terribly busy working for Coinspect and also helping with Bitcoin Core security. A rainy Sunday evening is a great moment to write, so here is my new post, with some new thoughts. People are trying to understand the security guarantees Bitcoin provides. […]

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